Quark Color

with 1 Comment

Just like electrons have charge, quarks have color. Of course, they are not actual colors: those are simply wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. We call them colors because there are three of them, so it seemed a good way to label … Read More

The Pauli Exclusion Principle

with 1 Comment

The Pauli Exclusion Principle You may have heard that matter is 99.999% empty space. If that is the case, why doesn’t matter go through other matter? There are two pieces to the answer: the first one is the electrical repulsion … Read More

What are Protons Made of?

with 2 Comments

What are protons made of? Popular wisdom says they are made of three quarks: two up quarks and a down quark. However, reality is much messier: quarks are held together by the strong force, which is mediated by a particle called the gluon. The gluon sticks to everything: all … Read More

Guess the Quark

with No Comments

Ordinary matter is made of atoms with a massive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. The nucleus is, in turn, made of two types of particles: protons and neutrons. These are much heavier than electrons, so much so that we … Read More