Quark Color

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Just like electrons have charge, quarks have color. Of course, they are not actual colors: those are simply wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. We call them colors because there are three of them, so it seemed a good way to label … Read More

What are Protons Made of?

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What are protons made of? Popular wisdom says they are made of three quarks: two up quarks and a down quark. However, reality is much messier: quarks are held together by the strong force, which is mediated by a particle called the gluon. The gluon sticks to everything: all … Read More

Guess the Quark

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Ordinary matter is made of atoms with a massive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. The nucleus is, in turn, made of two types of particles: protons and neutrons. These are much heavier than electrons, so much so that we … Read More